Glossary - Letter R

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RA |abbreviation| Resolution Advisory

radar |noun| a method of detecting distant objects and establishing their position, velocity, or other characteristics by analysis of very high frequency radio waves reflected from their surfaces


radar advisory service |noun| an air traffic radar service which gives pilots advice on actions necessary to ensure that they remain at a standard distance from other aircraft that are also receiving the service. Abbreviation: RAS

radar antenna |noun| a portion of a radar system used to radiate and intercept signals

radar beam |noun| a shaft of radar waves directed towards a distant point

radar coverage |noun| the area or scope reached by a radar

radar information service |noun| an air traffic radar service which gives pilots details of the positions, distances and levels of other aircraft to enable them to decide on any avoiding action which may be appropriate. Abbreviation: RIS (NOTE: A RIS is often provided when it is not possible or practical to provide a RAS.)

radar return |noun| the reflection of the beam off the ‘target’ (the aircraft) which causes a ‘blip’ or display on the controller’s screen or a weather contour on the aircraft’s weather radar

radar screen |noun| a cathode ray tube screen on which radar information is displayed

radar surveillance approach |noun| a type of radar instrument approach provided by ATC; only an operational radio transmitter and receiver are required. The radar controller vectors the aircraft to align it with the runway center-line.

radar vectoring |noun| the provision of navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of specific headings, based on the use of radar

radar vectors |noun| heading, altitude and airspeed instructions given by ATC using secondary surveillance radar / Radar vectors are given to arriving flights to enable them to intercept an approach aid. /

radial |adjective| referring to lines of radius having a common center - radial engine > engine in which the pistons are arranged like the spokes of a wheel - |noun| a line of radio bearing from a VOR beacon / To get to a facility you must track the reciprocal of the VOR radial. /


radiate |verb| to send out rays or waves / The Earth radiates low intensity infrared waves. Short bursts of energy are radiated from an antenna. /


radiation |noun| the act or process of sending out rays or waves - terrestrial radiation > radiation from the Earth


radiation fog |noun| fog caused by the cooling of the Earth to below the dew point, combined with saturation and condensation and a light mixing wind / Radiation fog cannot form over the sea. /


radiator |noun| a liquid-to-air heat exchanger that transfers engine heat to the outside air / Anti-icing additives are used in radiator coolants. / 


radio |noun| wireless transmission through space of electromagnetic waves in the approximate frequency range from 10 kHz to 300,000 MHz - radio waves > electromagnetic radiation waves / The atmosphere absorbs radio waves. /


radio aid |noun| a navigation aid utilizing radio waves


radio altimeter |noun| a device for measuring the height of the aircraft above the Earth using reflected radio waves

radio altitude |noun| an altitude above the ground displayed by the radio altimeter during the last 2,500 feet of the approach

radio horizon |noun| a line along which direct rays from a radio frequency transmitter become tangential to the Earth’s surface


radio magnetic indicator |noun| a cockpit navigation instrument which combines a bearing indicator and a heading indicator and can be used with ADF or VOR. Abbreviation: RMI

Radio Management Panel |noun| a control panel located on the center pedestal between the two pilots which allows them to tune to different VHF and HF radio frequencies as well as to various navigation aids. There is an ACTIVE and a STANDY window which enables a new frequency to be pre-tuned and then selected when needed. Abbreviation: RMP

radio operator |noun| initially, aircraft were flown by a five-man crew: captain, first officer, flight engineer, radio operator (whose language skills were often better than those of the rest of the crew) and navigator. With the advances of navigational technology and aircraft system automation, these five-man crews have gradually been reduced to the two pilots on modern aircraft.

radio silence |noun| not using the frequency in the event of another aircraft being in an emergency. Silence is twofold: first, it means instructing other aircraft and controllers on the frequency to maintain radio silence, if necessary, (‘Stop transmitting’) so that the frequency is fully available for the aircraft in distress; secondly, it is keeping the controller’s transmissions to a minimum so as not to disturb the flight crew.

radio-telephony |noun| the transmission of speech by radio / Correct use of R/T phraseology avoids ambiguity. / Abbreviation: R/T


radius |noun| - the radius of a circle > a line drawn from a point on the circumference of a circle to the center point (NOTE: The plural form is radii.)


radome |noun| a dome that protects a radar antenna, made from materials that do not interfere with the transmission and reception of radio waves


RAF |abbreviation| Royal Air Force


raft |noun| a flat-bottomed inflatable rubber craft for floating on water


railway line |noun| a railway track or train track / A railway line is a useful landmark. /


rain |noun| precipitation or water which falls from clouds in small drops / Rain is falling heavily. Rain and weather present fewer problems for area radar compared to the other types. / - |verb| to fall as drops of water from clouds / It is raining. I don’t think it will rain. /


rainstorm |noun| heavy rain accompanied by wind / In heavy rainstorm, the windscreen wipers may not be able to cope. /


raise |verb|  1. to lift - raise the landing gear > retract the undercarriage  2. to increase / to raise the temperature, to raise the pressure /  3. to cause problems / Fuel vaporization can raise problems when starting the engine. / (NOTE: Do not confuse with the verb to rise. Grammatically, the verb raise takes an object whereas the verb rise does not: temperature rises; The sun’s rays raise the temperature of the surface.)


rake |noun| the angle between a wing or propeller blade of an aircraft and a perpendicular or line of symmetry


ram |noun| an increase in air pressure caused by the forward speed of the aircraft / Due to ram effect from aircraft forward speed, extra air is taken into the engine. /


ram air |noun| airflow created by the movement of the aircraft which is used to cool, ventilate or drive turbines / Oil cooling is often achieved by using ram air or fuel. /

Ram Air Turbine |noun| a small electrical generator driven by a propeller, which is lowered into the airstream below the wing to provide essential electrical (and hydraulic) power in the event of multiple engine driven generator failures. Abbreviation: RAT

ramjet |noun| a type of jet engine in which fuel is burned in a duct with air compressed by the forward motion of the aircraft


ramp |noun|  1. an inclined track for loading and unloading / The height of the cabin floor to the ground on large jet transports means that injuries can occur by exiting through the doors when steps or ramps are not available. /  2. US same as apron

ramp supervisor |noun| a person in charge of a team of handlers loading and unloading cargo and baggage in case of any special cargo. Baggage loading devices are one of the main causes of damage to the aircraft during turnaround.

range |noun|  1. the amount or extent of variation / range of frequencies, range of temperatures /  2. a row or chain of mountains or hills / Valley winds require at least a reasonable pressure gradient, preferably along a range of hills which will produce a wind at right angles to the hills. /  3. the maximum distance an aircraft can fly on a given amount of fuel / Cruise level is selected to give the greatest fuel economy, i.e. the greatest range for least fuel. /  4. the maximum effective distance of operation / Precision approach radar (PAR) is subject to weather interference and has a limited range. / - |verb| to range from … to … > to vary from … to … / Temperatures range from 0°C (Celsius) at night to 40°C (Celsius) at midday. /


rapid |adjective| fast, with great speed / Hoar frost is a light crystalline deposit which can form on the aircraft as a result of rapid descent from cold altitudes into warm moist air. / - rapid changes > fast changes


rapidity |noun| great speed / Spontaneous combustion occurs with such rapidity that there is an audible explosion. /


rapidly |adverb| with great speed, quickly / Rime ice is formed when individual droplets of water freeze rapidly on striking the aircraft surface. /


rare |adjective| uncommon, not often occurring / Smog or smoke fog is now rare because of pollution controls. /

RAS |abbreviation|  1. radar advisory service  2. rectified air speed

RAT |abbreviation| Ram Air Turbine

rate |noun| a quantity measured in relation to another measured quantity - rate of climb > speed of ascent measured in feet per minute - rate of descent > speed of descent measured in feet per minute - flow rate > the amount of movement of a fluid through a system in a given time, e.g. gallons per minute


rather |adverb|  1. to some extent, somewhat - rather cold weather > weather which is quite cold, but not very cold   2. - rather than > instead of, preferably / Air tends to flow around hills rather than rise over them. /


rating |noun|  1. an authorization on a license, and forming part of the license, giving special conditions or privileges  2. a classification according to a scale


ratio |noun| a relationship between two quantities expressed as the quotient of one divided by the other / The air/fuel ratio is 15:1. Chart scale is the ratio of the chart distance to Earth distance. / (NOTE: The ratio of 7 to 4 is written 7:4 or 7/4.)


ray |noun| a thin or narrow beam of light or other radiant energy / The Earth is heated by the rays of the sun. /


RBI |abbreviation| relative bearing indicator


RCC |abbreviation| rescue co-ordination center


RCL |abbreviation| runway center-line


re- |prefix| again / reassemble, rewrite / (NOTE: Not all verbs beginning with re- have the meaning ‘again’, e.g. remember.)


reach |verb|  1. to arrive at a place / The aircraft reached its destination on time. /  2. to get to a particular level / Up-currents in thunderstorms can reach 3,000 feet per minute. Temperatures can reach 49°C (Celsius) in summertime in the Gulf region. /  3. to extend / The tops of thunderstorm clouds can reach through the tropopause. /


react |verb|  1. to act in response to an action / Because the rotors and stators of a compressor are of aerofoil shape, the airflow reacts in a similar way to the airflow over a wing. /  2. to do or to say something in response to words or to an event / The cabin crew reacted swiftly when the fire broke out. /  3. - to react with something > to change chemical composition because of another substance / The electrolyte in the cells of a lead-acid battery reacts chemically with the plates. /


reactance |noun| a component of impedance in an alternating current circuit / Reactance is a form of resistance which varies as the frequency changes. /


reaction |noun| a response to an action or stimulus / For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Passenger reaction may be slower than usual in an emergency situation. Quick reactions are needed in an emergency. /


reaction thrust principle |noun| the process by which exhaust gases coming of the back of an object cause a reaction force to act on the object and push it forwards


read-back |noun| the action of repeating an ATC message to the controller to enable him or her to check that it was correctly received

read-back error |noun| a failure to correctly repeat all or part of message to verify accuracy

read-back / hear-back error |noun| a failure to notice and correct a read-back error

readily |adverb|  1. promptly, immediately / Fire extinguishers must be readily available for use. Ice melts very readily at 0°C (Celsius). /  2. - it can readily be seen > it can be easily understood / It can readily be seen from the preceding paragraph that density and pressure are linked. /


reading |noun|  1. information indicated by an instrument or gauge - altimeter reading > the altitude indicated by the altimeter - barometer reading > the barometric pressure indicated by the barometer  2. - map reading > the act of interpreting information on a map


readout |noun| a display or presentation of data from calculations or storage / The rotating beam cloud base recorder/indicator operates continuously, day and night and produces an automatic readout of cloud base height. /


rear |noun| the aft part, the part furthest from the front / the rear of the aircraft / - |adjective| at the back, or referring to the back / The rear part of the aircraft is called the aft section. /


rearward |adjective| towards the aft or the rear / The expanding gas travels in a rearward direction. /


reason |noun| the basis or motive for an action / A rough surface is more susceptible to fatigue cracking than a smooth one and for this reason highly stressed members are often polished. /


reasonable |adjective|  1. acceptable or fair - a reasonable sum of money > a sum of money which is not too high or which is acceptable  2. within the boundaries of common sense / It would be reasonable to expect that radio frequencies would travel through the air in straight lines as a direct wave, but they bend, or refract. /


receive |verb| to get, to obtain / The sides of the hills and mountains which face the sun receive more intense radiation than flat surfaces because of the angle of exposure to the sun. /


receiver |noun| a device that receives incoming radio signals and converts them to sound or light / The transponder in the aircraft consists of a transmitter and a receiver. /


recent |adjective| referring to a time immediately before the present / Recent engine designs include variable angle stator blades. A more recent development is the barograph which utilizes the electrical output of the digital display barometer. / - recent weather > significant weather observed in the period since the previous observation, but not now


reception |noun| an act or instance of receiving radio signals / The antenna is highly directive in transmission and reception. /


reciprocal |adjective| - reciprocal heading > an opposite heading, 180° from a given heading / The reciprocal heading of 090° is 270°. / - |noun| the exactly opposite direction / A wave transmitted vertically returns to Earth on its reciprocal. /


reciprocating |adjective| moving backwards and forwards or up and down

re-clear |verb| to modify a previous ATC clearance / Re-cleared Flight Level 310; rest of clearance unchanged. /

recognize |verb| to identify, or to know to be something that has been seen, heard, etc. before / It may be difficult to recognize a particular stretch of coastline simply by its appearance. /


recognition |noun| the process of seeing or hearing something or somebody and knowing what it is or who he or she is / Hydraulic fluids are colored for recognition purposes. /


recommend |verb| to say that something is worthy, desirable or suitable / Dry chemical extinguishers are recommended for use on aircraft brake fires. Aircraft should be operated to the manufacturers recommended limits. /


record |noun|  1. a written account of facts and information for future reference  2. a set of electronically stored data - |verb|  1. to write down something such as information or data / Measure track angles and distances and record them in a log. /  2. to capture and store electronically / Details of wind speed, direction, visibility and cloud cover are recorded onto a cassette. /


recorder |noun| a device for capturing sound onto cassette or magnetic tape / cockpit voice recorder /


recording |noun| the act of writing or of picking up and storing information / An anemograph is an instrument which maintains a continuous recording of wind direction and speed on a graph. /


recover |verb|  1. to return to an earlier, normal condition or attitude - recover from a stall > to return the aircraft to straight and level flight  2. to rescue and remove from a particular area, often the sea / Emergency services recovered two bodies from the wreckage of the helicopter. /


recovery |noun|  1. a return to an earlier, normal condition or attitude - recovery from unusual attitudes > a flight exercise requiring the student pilot to return the aircraft to its previous, normal, that is, straight and level attitude, after it has been in an unusual attitude  2. rescue and removal from a particular area / The recovery of survivors from the sea was carried out by helicopters. /


rectangle |noun| a 4-sided plane figure with 4 right angles, and with opposite sides of equal length / The color identification of refueling equipment for AVGAS is: blue rectangle, red decal with AVGAS 100LL in white letters. /


rectangular |adjective| referring to something with the shape of a rectangle / a rectangular wing panel /


rectification |noun| the process of changing an alternating current into direct current / Part of the generator alternating current (AC) is passed through a rectification circuit. /


rectified airspeed |noun| indicated airspeed corrected for instrument error and pressure error / When rectified airspeed (RAS) is corrected for density error the resultant is known as the true airspeed. /


rectifier |noun| an electronic circuit that converts an alternating current supply into a direct current supply /The ignition unit receives an alternating current which is passed through a transformer and rectifier./


rectify |verb|  1. to change alternating current into direct current / Alternating current output is rectified and regulated externally and returned as direct current to the stator field winding. /  2. to correct - to rectify a mistake > to put right a mistake

recycle |verb| to perform a complete flight control, landing gear or door operation: extend-retract-extend, close-open-close etc.

red cap |noun| an airport agent who provides the weight and balance sheet which must be checked and signed by the captain. The weight and balance sheet contains updated information about the aircraft payload (passengers, baggage, cargo and fuel) and its location. This allows the aircraft’s center of gravity, which must be within certain limits for safe take-off and flight, to be calculated.

red-eye |noun| a late night or overnight airline service


reduce |verb| to decrease, to make less. Opposite: increase - reduce altitude > to descend - reduce temperature > to make cooler


reduced separation |noun| a revised minimum separation which is smaller than the previous minimum separation

Reduced Vertical Separation Minima |noun| the reduction of vertical separation from 2,000 to 1,000 feet with aircraft flying in opposite directions every 1,000 feet in order to accommodate more aircraft in the same airspace. Abbreviation: RVSM

reduction |noun| a decrease / reduction in temperature, pressure, speed /


reduction gear |noun| gears in an engine which allow the propeller to turn at a slower speed than the engine


redundancy |noun| the duplication of component parts of a system to enable the system to function even if one component fails / With system redundancy, a single failure within a system will have little effect on the aircraft’s performance during the approach and landing operation. /


redundant |adjective| referring to a system which provides extra component parts to enable the system to function even if one component fails / Redundant structure design is composed of a large number of members, all of which share a load, so that if one of the members is lost, the load carried by the member is divided between all the others in such a way that the total load-carrying ability is reduced only slightly. /


redux |noun| a method of fixing components together using adhesives and glues


re-enter |verb| to enter again /For engine checks the aircraft should be headed into wind to prevent hot exhaust gases re-entering the engine./


refer |verb|  1. to describe or give a name to / The term wind is used to refer to the horizontal motion of air. /  2. to direct someone to a source of help or information (NOTE: referring – referred) - refer to chapter 10 for more details > look at or read chapter 10 for more information


reference |noun| something used as a basis for further calculation or investigation - visual reference > anything seen and used as a guide to something else / Use the large building as a visual reference for the turn onto final approach. / - reference book > a book in which you can look for information, e.g. a dictionary - by reference to > by looking at and comparing


reference datum |noun| a line fixed by the designer from which measurements are made when checking or adjusting wing angles, etc.


reference point |noun| a fixed datum near the center of the airfield landing area


reference signal |noun| a signal against which telemetry data signals are compared

reference speed |noun| the speed at which the aircraft should be flying in a given configuration. Abbreviation: Vref

refinement |noun| an improvement / An internal locking device is one of the numerous refinements to the simple actuator. /


reflect |verb| to throw back something such as radio waves or light / Snow surfaces reflect up to 90% of radiation while rock, sand and concrete reflect only 10–20%. /


reflection |noun| the process of throwing back of something such as radio waves or light / Glare caused by reflection of sunlight from the top of a layer of fog or haze can seriously reduce the air-to-ground visibility. /


reflective |adjective| able to throw back something such as radio waves or light / Reflective power means that at low angles of elevation of the sun, water reflects a great amount of solar radiation thus slowing down the rise in sea surface temperatures. /


reflector |noun| a device which throws back something such as light / The shape of a water droplet makes it a good reflector, so water in the atmosphere absorbs and scatters radio waves. /


refract |verb| to cause a wave, such as light or sound, to change direction or turn as it passes from one medium into another of different density / A sky wave starts life as a direct wave and, on reaching the ionosphere, the direct wave is refracted and returns to the Earth’s surface. /


refraction |noun| the change in direction or turning of a wave, such as light or sound, as it passes from one medium into another of different density


refrigerant |noun| a substance to provide cooling either as the working substance of a refrigerator or by direct absorption of heat / Heated air from the main air supply system passes through the evaporator matrix and by induction releases heat into the liquid refrigerant. /


refuel, re-fuel |verb| to fill with fuel again / Fire risk is always present when you defuel and refuel. /


regain |verb| to obtain again or to acquire again / The omni-bearing selector/course deviation indicator is a demand instrument which indicates which way to turn to regain the required bearing. /


regard |noun| a particular point or aspect - in this regard > concerning this or with reference to this - with regard to > concerning or with reference to / With regard to the turbo-propeller engine, changes in propeller speed and pitch have to be taken into account. / - |verb| to look upon or consider in a particular way / Thoughtful concern for others is regarded as an essential component of good airmanship. /


regardless |preposition| in spite of, despite, with no thought of - with fly-by-wire technology, the aircraft’s stalling angle of attack cannot be exceeded regardless of control stick input > the stalling angle of attack cannot be exceeded, despite or no matter what the pilot does with the flying controls


region |noun|  1. an area, usually a large geographical area / The troposphere is deepest in equatorial regions and shallowest near the poles. /  2. - in the region of > about or approximately / The burning temperature of the fuel is in the region of 2,000°C (Celsius). /


register |noun| an official list or record / The student’s name was not on the register. / - |verb|  1. to record or to indicate on an instrument / During ground running checks, if oil pressure does not register within a few seconds, the engine should be stopped and the cause investigated. Electrically operated pressure gauges register main and emergency system pressure. /  2. to enter details on an official list / to register an aircraft /


registration |noun| the entry of civil aircraft into records of national certification authority with details of letter and number code displayed on aircraft - certificate of registration > a document issued as proof of registration


regular |adjective|  1. occurring at fixed time intervals / a regular flight / - regular inspections > inspections taking place at equal intervals of time  2. ordinary or standard


regulate |verb| to control, to adjust to a specific requirement / Controllable cowl flaps regulate the amount of air flowing across the cylinders. /


regulation |noun| an act or instance of controlling or adjusting to a specific requirement / Regulation of cabin temperature is controlled by the manual setting of a mechanically controlled switch. /


regulations |plural noun| rules or laws


regulator |noun| a device used to control the flow of fluids or electric current - voltage regulator > a device to control the level of voltage


Reid vapor pressure test |noun| a test to determine the pressure required above a liquid to hold the vapors in the liquid at a given temperature


reinforce |verb| to make stronger or to strengthen / Typical skin materials used in aircraft are made from epoxy resins which are reinforced with glass, carbon or Kevlar fibers. /


reinforced |adjective| made stronger or strengthened


reinforced plastics |plural noun| plastic materials used with glass fibers to repair some types of aircraft structure


reinforcement |noun| the act of strengthening, or a material or structure used to strengthen something / There is reinforcement around each opening in the pressure cabin, such as the cabin door, escape hatch and windows. /

reject |verb| to refuse, to abandon / The crew rejected take-off at 70 knots. /

relate |verb|  1. to make a connection or link, to associate / Orientating the chart relates the direction of land features to their representation on the chart and aids recognition. /  2. - to relate to > to concern or to be about / Kepler derived the laws which relate to the motion of planets in their orbits. /


relation |noun|  1. a natural or logical association between things / the relation between thrust and drag / - this bears no relation to that > this is not connected with that in any way  2. - in relation to > with reference to / The range at which objects can be recognized is affected by the direction of viewing in relation to the position of the sun or the moon. The VOR station on the ground does the calculation and, depending on where the aircraft is in relation to the VOR station, it will receive signals which define the bearing of the aircraft from the VOR. /


relationship |noun| a natural or logical association between things / There is a close relationship between altitude and pressure. /


relative |adjective| - relative to > compared to, with reference to / Ground-speed is the speed of the aircraft relative to the ground. /


relative airflow |noun| airflow over an airfoil, often related to the chord line of the airfoil. Also called: relative wind


relative bearing |noun| the bearing of a radio station or object with reference to the aircraft’s heading


relative density |noun| the ratio of density of a liquid with reference to water, or of a gas with reference to air


relative humidity |noun| the ratio between the amount of water vapor in the air and the amount which would be present if the air was saturated, at the same temperature and the same pressure


relative wind |noun| same as relative airflow


relay |noun| a device which responds to a small current or voltage change by activating switches or other devices in an electric circuit / Thermocouple detectors operate a sensitive relay or electronic circuit when a predetermined temperature is exceeded. / - |verb| to pass an ATC message to an aircraft via another aircraft that is on the same frequency and within radio range (NOTE: Messages may have to be relayed when atmospheric conditions make a direct transmission impossible)


release |noun| the act of freeing something from something that holds it / Air rising and cooling often reaches its dew point temperature, becomes saturated and any further cooling results in condensation and the consequent release of latent heat. / - |verb| to free from something that holds it / Push the button to release the lever. / - release the brakes > let the brakes off - to release the pressure > to allow pressure to reduce


relevant |adjective| having a connection with the matter in hand / High charts show only information relevant to high altitude flights and many beacons and aids which are provided for low operations are omitted to keep the chart clear. / - relevant information > useful information which is related to the matter in question


reliability |noun| dependability, trustworthiness / The gas turbine is a very simple engine with few moving parts, giving it high reliability with less maintenance. /


reliable |adjective| dependable, trustworthy / The gas turbine is a very simple and reliable engine. /


relief |noun|  1. variations in elevation of the surface of the earth / Relief is usually represented on aeronautical charts by contours, gradient tints or hill shading. /  2. a lessening of pressure

relief crew |noun| a flight crew on the ground or on board who replaces a crew at the end of their period of duty

relief valve |noun| a valve which opens at maximum safe pressure and closes again upon return to normal operating conditions


relieve |verb| to cause a lessening in, or to remove, excess pressure or tension / Safety valves relieve excess cabin pressure. A trim tab on the elevator relieves the forward and aft forces on the control stick or yoke. /


relight |verb| to ignite again / The ability of the engine to relight will vary according to the altitude and the forward speed of the aircraft. /

reluctance |noun| a lack of willingness, often because of fear of embarrassment or simply to save time and effort / The First Officer showed a lot of reluctance to question the Captain’s decision. /

rely |verb| to be dependent on / Pressure carburetors do not rely on venturi suction to discharge fuel into the airstream. /


remain |verb| to stay, to continue to be / During the evacuation, crew must remain at their assigned stations and redirect passengers. The fuel/air ratio does not remain constant, but, as the speed increases, the mixture gets richer. The audible fire warnings may be cancelled but the red warning light will remain on. /


remainder |noun|  1. something left after excluding other parts, the rest / The auxiliary power unit is usually found in the tail section, separated from the remainder of the fuselage by a firewall. /  2. the number left over when one number is divided by another


remote |adjective|  1. far away, and not near anything else / When the destination is a remote island, the calculation of the point of no return (PNR) becomes essential. /  2. operated or controlled from a distance / remote cabin pressure controllers /  3. - a remote chance > a small but unlikely possibility

remote stand |noun| a parking position which is not directly connected to the terminal

removal |noun| the act of taking something away, or of moving something from the position it occupies / The repair to the aircraft required the removal of the engine. /


remove |verb| to take something away or move it from the position it occupies /Filters are fitted in lines in a hydraulic system, in order to remove foreign particles from the fluid. The engine will have to be removed for repair./


render |verb|  1. to cause to become / The failure of any component in the fire detection system will render the system inoperative. Tropical air moving northwards is subjected to surface cooling and rendered increasingly stable in its lower layers. /  2. to give - to render assistance > to provide help / Only when all possible assistance has been rendered inside the cabin will crew themselves evacuate. /


repair |noun| an action designed to return something to good condition after damage / The repair to the nose-wheel took three hours. / - |verb| to mend or otherwise return to good condition after damage / After the wheels-up landing, the flaps had to be repaired. /

repair station |noun| a technical facility where certain types of aircraft, engines and equipment can be repaired and maintained

repeat |verb|  1. to do again / The first officer repeated the transmission. The trainee had to repeat her navigation examination. /  2. to occur again / Metal fatigue is induced by repeated stress cycling. /  3. to say again / Could you repeat that please? I didn’t hear. The message was repeated a few minutes later. /


repel |verb| to push away by a force / Like poles (i.e., north and north, or south and south) of a magnet repel each other. / (NOTE: repelling – repelled)


repellent |noun| a substance used to resist the effect of something / Rain repellent is sprayed onto the windscreen and spread by the wipers. /


replace |verb| to take the place or to fill the place of / As warm air rises, cold air moves in to replace it. The term Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is being replaced by the term Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). /


replacement |noun|  1. the act of replacing something with something else / The replacement of moist air by dry air is the only sure way of dispersing advection fog. /  2. something or somebody that replaces something or somebody else / She was hired as a replacement for a manager who had recently retired. /


reply |noun| an answer or response / Secondary surveillance interrogation is made on 1030 MHz (megahertz) and the reply on 1090 MHz (megahertz). / - |verb| to answer, to respond / He replied to the letter. / (NOTE: replying – replied)


report |noun| an official account of an occurrence / incident report, weather report / - |verb| to write or tell information in an official manner / The observer measures this distance in a number of directions and reports the minimum value as the meteorological visibility. An accident must be reported. /


reporting point |noun| a specified geographical location on an aircraft’s route at which the crew must report to air traffic control


represent |verb| to indicate or to show, using signs or symbols / On a Mercator projection, meridians are represented as parallel straight lines. /


representation |noun| a way of showing something, using signs or symbols / The synoptic chart provides a representation of the weather over a large area at a particular time. /


representative |adjective| - representative of > which is a typical example of what all others are like / Surface air temperatures are taken in such a way as to be representative of the air temperature near the surface yet unaffected by the direct surface heating or cooling effects. / - |noun| a person who acts or speaks for another person or for an organization such as a company


request |noun| a polite demand, or what is asked for / ATC (air traffic control) received a request from the pilot for departure clearance. / - on request > when asked for / A personal flying log book must be retained for production on request by an authorized person. / - |verb| to ask for something / The pilot requested vectors to enable him to locate the airfield. /


require |verb|  1. to need / Dynamic seals require lubrication to remain effective. /  2. to impose an obligation, to compel by law / Transport operations over water require the carriage of life rafts, life jackets, survival beacons and pyrotechnics. /


requirement |noun|  1. what is necessary / Planning for an in-flight emergency is a standard requirement of pre-departure preparation. /  2. - legal requirement > an obligation by law  3. something which is demanded or required / The airframe had to be built to very specific requirements. /


re-register |verb| to register again / The aircraft had to be re-registered because of an administrative error. /


rescue |noun| the act of freeing from danger / Early rescue depends on the rapid location of survivors. / - |verb| to free from danger / Passengers were rescued from the burning aircraft. /


reserve |noun| something kept back for possible future use - |verb| to keep something such as a seat for somebody / Seats 23A and 23B are reserved for Mr and Mrs Smith. /


reserve fuel |noun| fuel used only in a situation when the aircraft has to be in the air for a longer time than expected, as because of a go-around or diversion


reservoir |noun| a container for holding a store of fluid / A reservoir provides both storage space for the system fluid, and sufficient air space to allow for any variations in the volume of the fluid in the system. /


reset |verb| to set again / Instruments which need resetting in flight must be accessible to the crew. / (NOTE: resetting – reset)


resettable |adjective| possible to reset / Circuit breakers are resettable protective devices. /


residual |adjective| referring to the residue of something


residue |noun| the remainder of something after the removal of the main part / The leaking oil left a sticky residue on the ground. /


resin |noun| materials which are used with fillers and other components to form plastics, e.g. polyesters, epoxies and silicones / To make a composite it is necessary to combine the reinforcing glass fibers with some form of special glue or resin. /


resist |verb| to fight off the effects of something / A tube resists bending in any direction but beams are designed usually to resist bending in one or two directions only. In order for an airplane to fly, lift and thrust must resist and overcome the forces of gravity and drag. /


resistance |noun|  1. a force that opposes  2. the opposition of a body or substance to current passing through it / The shunt coil is made of fine wire which gives a high resistance and small current flow. /


resistant |adjective| referring to something which is unaffected by a force, process or substance / Some alloys are less resistant to corrosion than others. /


resistive |adjective| referring to resistance / Windscreen heating and electrical deicing systems are resistive load circuits. /


resistor |noun| a device used to control current in an electric circuit by providing a resistance / Components such as resistors, rectifiers and internal switches are all embedded in micro-size sections of semi-conductor material. /

Resolution Advisory |noun| a message delivered by the TCAS instructing the crew to climb or descend. An RA requires the crew to take immediate action. If there is a conflict between an ATC instruction and a TCAS Resolution Advisory, the crew must obey the Resolution Advisory. If the TCAS instructs the crew of one aircraft to descend, and ATC also instructs the non-TCAS equipped aircraft to descend, the TCAS will give the crew a contrary instruction after a few seconds in order to avoid collision. Abbreviation: RA

respect |noun| - in some respect > in some way / The flat chart inevitably misrepresents the Earth’s surface in some respect. / - with respect to > concerning or with reference to / Frost point is the temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure in order to reach a state of saturation with respect to ice. /


respective |adjective| referring to two or more persons or things regarded individually / The passengers returned to their respective seats. The temperature and pressure of the fuel supply are electrically transmitted to their respective indicators, i.e. temperature to the temperature gauge and pressure to the pressure gauge. /


respond |verb|  1. to reply or to answer  2. to react, to act in return - the aircraft responds to the controls > the aircraft attitude changes as a result of the pilot’s movements of the flying controls


responder |noun| same as transponder


response |noun|  1. an answer or reply / Despite repeated air traffic control transmissions, there was no response from the pilot. /  2. a reaction - in response to > as a reaction to / The primary function of the outflow valves is to regulate the discharge of cabin air in response to the pressure signals received from the controller. /

response time |noun| a time taken by a human being or a machine to react to a situation or input

responsibility |noun| the condition of being responsible / It is the responsibility of the captain to order an evacuation. /


responsible |adjective|  1. being a source or cause / Frontal systems are responsible for much of the weather and clouds which occur in temperate latitudes. /  2. directing or being in charge, and open to blame if something goes wrong / Cabin crew are responsible for the well-being of passengers. / - responsible to someone > answerable for one’s actions to somebody highly placed


restore |verb| to return something to its original or normal condition / Loss of engine power should be fully restored when the control is returned to the cold air position. /


restrict |verb|  1. to make free movement limited or difficult / The narrow aisles of the aircraft restrict the rapid movement of people. /  2. to limit - during the bomb-scare, entry to the airport was restricted to authorized people only > only authorized people could enter the airport


restricted area |noun| airspace of a particular length, width and depth, within which the flight of an aircraft must be carried out in accordance with particular conditions


restriction |noun|  1. a narrowing or partial blockage / Any restriction in a pipeline will increase liquid velocity and produce turbulence. /  2. a limitation / There are restrictions on the taking of photographs in the vicinity of the airport. /


restricting valve |noun| a valve designed to permit limited flow in one direction and full flow in the other direction / The extent to which the oil pressure will fall depends on the size of the restricting valve. /


result |noun| a consequence or outcome / Engine oil and cylinder temperature will also increase as a result of higher combustion temperatures. / - |verb| - to result from > to happen as a consequence / The structural weakness resulted from a minor collision while taxiing two years previously. / - to result in > to produce as an effect / Failure to secure seat belts could result in serious injury. /


resultant |adjective| that happens as a result of something / The temperature of the land rises, causing the layer of air in contact with it to warm up and expand with a resultant decrease in density. / - |noun| one vector that is the equivalent of a set of vectors / When two or more velocities act simultaneously on a body, the aircraft movement is called the resultant velocity due to the two or more component velocities. /

resume |verb| to start using or doing again, to return to again after an interruption / Resume own navigation direct CHN. /

resuscitation |noun| the act of bringing someone back to consciousness

retain |verb| to keep or to hold / Retentivity is the ability of a material has to retain magnetism. When fuel-dumping, sufficient fuel must be retained for landing. /


retard |verb|  1. to cause to occur later, or to delay / On most modern engines the spark is retarded to top dead center, to ensure easier starting and prevent kick-back. /  2. to move backwards / When reducing power, always retard the throttles before reducing RPM (revolutions per minute) with the propeller levers.3. to pull back the throttle / thrust lever(s) on the center pedestal to reduce the engine speed and the resulting thrust; to throttle back / Just prior to touchdown the automatic system in the flight deck says ‘retard, retard’. /


retentivity |noun| the ability to remain magnetized after the magnetizing force has gone / Steel has high retentivity, but soft iron has low retentivity. /


retract |verb| to move back, or to raise / Mechanically operated sequence valves ensure that the landing gear does not extend until the doors are open and that the landing gear is retracted before the doors close. / - retract the gear > to set the landing gear lever on the right centre part of the instrument panel to UP; the landing gear is unlocked, folds and enters the landing gear bays / The landing gear bay doors open to allow the landing gear to retract. /


retractable |adjective| possible to pull back or raise - retractable undercarriage > an undercarriage which can be raised into the fuselage or wings after use / Early aircraft had non-retractable undercarriages. /


retraction |noun| the act of pulling back or raising - retraction of the undercarriage > the raising of the undercarriage into the fuselage after use


return |noun| the act of coming back or going back to a place / We’re waiting for the return of the aircraft. / - radar return > radar echo - |adjective| return flight > a flight back to the point of departure - |verb| to cause to come back or to go back to an earlier position or place / Fly from A to B and return. The auto-control will return the ailerons to neutral as the aircraft returns to level flight. /


return valve |noun| a valve which allows flow of fluid in both directions


reveal |verb| to allow to be seen / Radio-graphic inspection of the aircraft structure is able to reveal fatigue cracks without the need to dismantle the aircraft. /


reversal |noun| a change to the opposite position, direction, or order / Stationary eddies can be hazardous, not only because of the down currents but also because an aircraft encountering the reversal of direction might have its airspeed momentarily reduced below stalling speed. /


reverse |noun| the opposite / One would expect a unit of humid air to be heavier than a similar unit of dry air but, in fact, the reverse is true. / - |adjective| going backwards or in the opposite direction - reverse flow > the flow of a fluid in the opposite direction to normal - |verb| to go backwards or in the opposite direction - to reverse a vehicle > to make a vehicle go backwards


reverse panic |noun| a form of shock which makes passengers unable to comprehend the need for urgency


reverser |noun| - thrust reverser > a device to change the direction of thrust so that it operates in the opposite direction to the normal direction / In many turbo-jet thrust reversers, clamshell doors direct the exhaust gases forward. /


reverse thrust |noun| thrust in the opposite direction to normal in order to decelerate the aircraft after landing


reversible |adjective| that can be made to go backwards or to change direction / a reversible electric motor /


reversible pitch propeller |noun| a propeller which allows the aircraft to be propelled backwards when taxiing


reversion |noun| a return to an earlier condition or state / In smaller aircraft, reversion to manual control is possible if complete loss of hydraulic power occurs. /


revert |verb| to return to an earlier condition or state / The elevator system has the ability to revert to manual control after a hydraulic failure. /


revolution |noun| a rotation or turn about an axis - a revolution of the crankshaft > a 360° turn of the crankshaft


revolutions per minute |noun| the speed of an engine or the number of rotations of the crankshaft per minute / Rpm is the number of revolutions per minute that the engine crankshaft is making. The actuator control is sensitive to engine rpm. / Abbreviation: rpm, r.p.m.


revolve |verb| to turn about an axis / The Earth revolves around the sun. /


revolving |adjective| - tropical revolving storm > an intense depression of a kind that can develop over tropical oceans / Tropical revolving storms originate within 5–15° of the equator. Tropical revolving storms generally occur from June to October. /

RH |abbreviation| Right Hand; ‘Right hand’ / ‘Left hand’ are generally used to avoid confusion with ‘right’ meaning ‘correct’ and ‘left’ meaning ‘remaining’

rhumb |noun| one of the points of a compass


rhumb line |noun|  1. a regularly curved line on the surface of the Earth which cuts all meridians at the same angle  2. a steady course taken by aircraft along one compass bearing


rhumb line direction |noun| the average of all the great circle directions between the two points / Because the great circle direction between two points on the surface of the Earth is not constant, it is often more convenient to consider the rhumb line direction. /


rib |noun| one of many cross pieces of the airframe that provide an aircraft wing with shape and strength / Additional strength is required for the rib sections which are placed in the area of the undercarriage mountings, flaps and power plant attachment point. /


rich |adjective| referring to a mixture in which the ratio of fuel to air is greater than usual / Moving the mixture control lever forward to the rich position increases the amount of fuel mixing with the air. /


rich mixture |noun| a fuel/air mixture in which the proportion of fuel is greater than normal

ride |noun| jargon for flight / We are having a smooth ride. /

ridge |noun|  1. a long narrow hill with a crest / The mountain ridge stretches for miles. /  2. a long zone of relatively high atmospheric pressure / On average, the wind backs with the passage of a ridge. /


ridge waves |plural noun| oscillations about the stable state of the undisturbed air flow with the range of hills providing the disturbance


rigging position |noun| an attitude of the aircraft in which the lateral axis and usually the longitudinal axis are horizontal / The aircraft was put into the rigging position. /

right green arrow |noun| the green arrow (or indicator light) which shows that the right hand main gear is extended and locked down

rigid |adjective| unbending, inflexible / The areas between the ribs are utilized to house fuel tanks which can be either rigid or flexible. / Opposite: flexible - rigid pipes > pipes that do not bend easily - a rigid structure > a firm non-bendable structure


rigidity |noun| inflexibility, stiffness / Extra strength and rigidity must be provided in the tail section for aircraft with a tail wheel unit. / Opposite: flexibility


rim |noun| the outer edge of something circular, e.g. a wheel / Creep marks are painted on the tire and the wheel rim. The rim of the air intake is prone to icing. /


rime ice |noun| ice formed when individual droplets of water freeze rapidly on striking the aircraft surface


ring |noun| a circle / Around the impeller is a ring of stationary vanes called a diffuser ring. /


ripcord |noun| a cord that is pulled to release a parachute from its pack and open it


RIS |abbreviation| radar information service


rise |noun|  1. an increase / a rise in temperature /  2. - to give rise to > to cause / Hills and mountains may give rise to particularly severe turbulence. / - |verb|  1. to move upwards / air rises /  2. to increase / The temperature is rising. / 


risk |noun| the possibility of suffering harm or injury, danger / When starting an engine, it is bad practice to pump the throttle lever as there is a risk of fire in the carburetor air intake. / - |verb| to take a dangerous chance - to risk the lives of passengers > to put the lives of passengers in danger by taking a particular course of action

risk factor |noun| an aspect which can be a source of danger or threat / Poor visibility, crew fatigue, failure to follow SOPs are all potential risk factors during approach and landing. /

risk management |noun| an identification, assessment and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated use of resources to minimize them

rivet |noun| a type of metal bolt or pin with a head on one end, inserted through one of the aligned holes in the parts to be joined and then compressed on the plain end to form a second head / Tensile or compressive loading makes the joined materials tend to slide and break the rivet or bolt. / - |verb| to join with rivets / The skin is riveted to both stringers and frames. /


RMI |abbreviation| radio magnetic indicator

RMP |abbreviation| Radio Management Panel

RNAV |abbreviation| area navigation


robot pilot |noun| same as autopilot


rocker arm |noun| part of the valve mechanism in an internal combustion engine, which transmits the movement of the push-rod to the valve


rod |noun| a thin straight piece of metal / Aluminum rods and bars can readily be employed in the high-speed manufacture of parts. /


rogallo |noun| a fabric-covered delta-shaped wing that can be folded compactly, used on ultralight aircraft


role |noun| function / Movement of air plays a major role in the development of weather patterns. / - the role of the aircraft > the type of operation the aircraft is required to perform


roll |noun|  1. a rotation about the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, created by movement of the ailerons / Roll is produced by moving the stick to the left or right. /  2. - bank > a flight maneuver with 360° rotation about the longitudinal axis of the aircraft / Loops and rolls are aerobatic maneuvers. / - |verb| to rotate the aircraft around its longitudinal axis / Move the control column to the left to roll the aircraft to the left. / - to roll into a turn > to roll or bank the aircraft so that it turns left or right / By rotating the yoke the ailerons are moved and the aircraft rolls into a turn. / (NOTE: The difference between roll and bank is that roll is movement whereas bank suggests a fixed attitude of the aircraft. Consequently, a turn might be expressed in angles of bank: turn at a bank angle of 30°, and the movement to obtain the bank might be expressed as roll: roll the aircraft to the left.)


roll cloud |noun| cloud created in the rotor zone on the downwind side of mountain ranges

roll through |verb| to taxi past, to fail to stop at / The crew inadvertently rolled through the stop bar. /

rollout / roll-out |noun|  1. an aircraft’s ground roll along the runway after touchdown  2. returning to level flight

roller |noun| a cylindrical metal device which rotates /The most common bearings used in gas turbine engine are the ball or roller type./


RON |abbreviation| remain overnight


root |noun| - the root of the problem > the cause of the problem


rose |noun| - compass rose > the compass card or its marking of 32 points on a map / An arc of the compass scale, or rose, covering 30° on either side of the instantaneous track, is at the upper part of the display. /


rotary |adjective| rotating - rotary motion > rotating movement


rotary actuator |noun| an actuator which rotates and operates a screw jack, e.g. to extend flaps


rotary inverter |noun| a DC motor driving an AC generator, the output of which must be regulated to give constant voltage and frequency


rotary wing aircraft |noun| an aircraft with a rotor which provides lift, such as a helicopter


rotate |verb| to turn around on an axis or center / In the event of flame extinction in flight, the engine will continue to rotate, due to the airflow through it caused by the forward speed of the aircraft. The aircraft should be rotated to the recommended nose-up attitude for touch down. Counter-rotating propellers rotate in opposite directions. /


rotation |noun|  1. the act of moving the control yoke or stick aft to raise the nose of an aircraft during the take-off run to facilitate the aircraft becoming airborne / Rotation should begin at about 60 knots. /  2. the act of turning around an axis or center / The speed of rotation determines the frequency of the generator output. / (NOTE: The aircraft rotates around three axes: pitch = rotation around the lateral axis; roll = rotation around the longitudinal axis; yaw = rotation around the vertical axis.)


rotational |adjective| rotating / The rotational movement of the propeller blades creates lift at right angles to the blade. /


rotor |noun| a device which turns about an axis or center / The rotor blade of a compressor. /


rotor blade |noun| a long thin airfoil on a helicopter rotor


rotor-craft |noun| same as rotary wing aircraft


rough |adjective|  1. not smooth, having an irregular surface. Opposite: smooth - rough air > turbulent air - rough running > referring to a piston engine which is not operating correctly  2. not fully detailed - a rough estimate > an approximate calculation, good enough for a given purpose - a rough drawing > a quick drawing usually used to illustrate or explain


roughness |noun| unevenness of a surface / The strength of turbulence near the Earth’s surface depends largely on the surface temperature, the surface wind, and the roughness of the surface. /


rough terrain |noun| uneven ground


round |adjective| circular / a round life raft / - |adverb| in a circular movement / The pointer swings round. /


route |noun| a course of travel / The purpose of charts is to plan and fly a safe route to a destination. / - |verb| to plan to send an aircraft, passengers or freight to a place along a particular route


route flight plan |noun| detailed information concerning an intended flight, provided to an air traffic control facility in written or oral form


routine |noun| a standard procedure / Meteorological information for scheduled flights will be passed to the operations department as a matter of routine. / - |adjective| standard and regular - routine servicing > servicing carried out in the normal way at regular, scheduled intervals


row |noun|  1. a series of objects in a line / Each row of rotating rotor blades is followed by a row of stationary stator blades. /  2. a series of seats in an aircraft / There are no empty seats in Row 8. /


rpm , r.p.m. |abbreviation| revolutions per minute / Rpm is the number of revolutions per minute that the engine crankshaft is making. The actuator control is sensitive to engine rpm. /


R/T |abbreviation| radio-telephony (NOTE: R/T is frequently used in spoken language, whereas RTF is the ICAO abbreviation.)

RT loading |noun| the degree of saturation of radio frequency

RTF |abbreviation| radio-telephony (ICAO)


rudder |noun| a control surface on the fin which rotates the aircraft about its vertical axis to produce yaw / The A320 retains a backup mechanical linkage for elevator trim and rudder to allow control in the unlikely event of complete electrical failure. / (NOTE: The rudder does not turn the aircraft. It is used, together with aileron deflection, to initiate turns, to balance forces in turns and to counteract yawing motions created by the propeller during flight. The rudder pedals are mounted on the floor of the cockpit.)


rudder ball |noun| same as inclinometer

rudder deflection |noun| the movement of the rudder from side to side / Rudder deflection is reduced at high speed. /

rudder pedal |noun| a foot-operated lever which moves the rudder / Just before take-off, the pilot should make sure that his or her feet are correctly positioned on the rudder pedals. /


rule |noun|  1. a standard and authoritative instruction or guide / According to the rules, your ticket must be paid for two weeks in advance. / - as a rule > usually / As a general rule, radio signals travel in straight lines. /  2. an instrument for determining length


rule of thumb |noun| easily remembered, useful guide to a more complex principle


run |noun| a route or distance - |verb|  1. to extend / Magnetic lines of force run from the north magnetic pole to the south magnetic pole. /  2. to operate an engine / An engine should be run at low r.p.m.(revolutions per minute) after flight to allow engine components to cool to a more uniform temperature. /

run away |verb| to increase in an uncontrolled manner / The temperature indications seem to be running away. /

runaway |noun| a situation where something increases in an uncontrolled manner or moves out of control / thermal runaway, stabilizer runaway /

run up |noun| - engine run-up > the testing of a piston engine at high power, in a light aircraft, just before take-off / Make certain that the parking brake is on before doing engine run-up checks. /


runway |noun| a strip of level, usually paved ground on which aircraft take off and land / Heathrow airport has four terminals and two main runways. To achieve a safe landing, an aircraft has to be controlled so that its wheels make contact with the runway smoothly. The aircraft lined up perfectly on the runway extended center line. / Abbreviation: R/W (NOTE: Large airports often have more than one runway, arranged to cope with varying wind directions. Some busy airports have parallel runways which can be used simultaneously.)

runway center-line lighting |noun| a lighting along the longitudinal axis of a runway

runway center-line marking |noun| a series of painted marks showing the runway center-line

runway edge lighting |noun| a system of white lights, usually on stalks, on each side of the runway

runway exit |noun| a short taxiway which allows aircraft to leave a runway

runway exit sign |noun| an airport sign which indicates an approaching taxiway to vacate a runway

runway holding point/position marking |noun| painted markings of continuous and broken yellow lines  which indicate where aircraft must hold until cleared onto a runway

runway incursion |noun| a situation that occurs when an aircraft, vehicle, pedestrian or animal inadvertently enters an active runway

runway visual range |noun| the distance along a runway at which selected lights can be seen, adjusted to simulate approach visibility / Runway visual range is obtained by an observer standing at the side of the runway in the vicinity of the threshold counting the number of markers or lights visible along the side of the runway. / Abbreviation: RVR


rupture |noun| the process of breaking open or bursting / Pressure in the fuel tanks must be controlled to prevent rupture or collapse. / - |verb| to break open or burst / The impact ruptured the fuel tank. /

rushed |adjective| in a hurry, in haste, too fast to do things properly / Rushed decisions and actions often lead to errors and inattention. /

RVR |abbreviation| runway visual range

RVSM |abbreviation| Reduced Vertical Separation Minima

R/W, RWY |abbreviation| runway

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