Glossary - Letter E

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E |abbreviation| east


ear |noun| the hearing organ


ear defenders |plural noun| same as acoustic ear muffs


eardrum |noun| a membrane inside the ear which vibrates with sound and passes the vibrations to the inner ear / Equalization of the air pressure across the eardrum is more difficult to achieve during descents than ascents. /


ear muffs |plural noun| - acoustic ear muffs


ear protectors |plural noun| same as acoustic ear muffs


earth |noun|  1. - (the planet) Earth the planet where we live  2. ground or soil - |verb| to connect an electrical appliance to a position of zero potential / When refueling a light aircraft, ensure that the aircraft is properly earthed. / (NOTE: The US expression is to ground .)


east |noun|  1. a compass point on the mariner’s compass 90° clockwise from due north and directly opposite west / London is east of New York. /  2. the direction in which the Earth rotates, the direction of the rising sun - |adjective|  1. referring to areas or regions lying in the east / the east coast of Canada /  2. the eastern part of a region / East Africa / - |adverb| towards the east / The aircraft was flying east. /


eastbound |adjective| traveling towards the east / an eastbound flight /


easterly |adjective|  1. situated towards the east  2. - easterly component > one part of the wind direction coming from the east  3. - to move in an easterly direction > to move towards the east - |noun| a wind which blows from the east


eastern |adjective| situated in the east / one of the eastern provinces of Canada /


Eastern Standard Time |noun| the time zone of the eastern USA and Canada, 5 hours behind GMT. Abbreviation: EST


eastward |adjective| going towards the east - |adverb| US same as eastwards


eastwards |adverb| towards the east / Flying eastwards or westwards for long periods of time affects sleep patterns. /


east wind |noun| a wind blowing from or coming from the east (NOTE: A wind is named after the direction it comes from.)


EAT |abbreviation| expected approach time


EATMP |abbreviation| European air traffic management program


ECAC |abbreviation| European civil aviation conference


ECAM |abbreviation| electronic centralized aircraft monitor


echo |noun|  1. the repetition of a sound by reflection of sound waves from a surface  2. the return of a signal back to the source from which it was transmitted / The strength of the returning echo from a radar transmission depends on a number of factors. /


economic |adjective| financially rewarding / It was no longer economic to keep the maintenance operation going. /


economical |adjective| referring to a substance or device for which input is minimized and output maximized (thereby saving costs) - economical engine > an engine which uses less fuel to produce the same power as comparable engines / Jet engines are more efficient and economical when operated at high altitudes. /


ECS |abbreviation| environmental control system


EDDUS |abbreviation| electronic data display and update system


eddy |noun| a current of air moving in the opposite direction to the main current, especially in a circular motion / When wind flows over an obstruction such as a building, an eddy is formed on the lee, or downwind side. /


edge |noun| a line of intersection or joining of two surfaces


EET |abbreviation| estimated elapsed time


effect |noun|  1. something which results from a cause / Ultra-violet radiation has the effect of warming the atmosphere. Pressure patterns have an effect on weather. /  2. the condition of being in full force - in effect > in operation - to take effect, to come into effect > to start to operate / A new regulation comes into effect tomorrow. / - with effect from > starting from - |verb| to cause or carry out - to effect a change > to make a change - modifications were effected > modifications were carried out.


effective |adjective|  1. having an expected and satisfactory result - the new cleaning fluid was very effective > it cleaned well  2. operative, in effect / The regulation is effective immediately. /


effectiveness |noun| how well something works / Ice covering reduces the effectiveness of an aerial. /


effective pitch |noun| the distance the aircraft moves forward in flight for one 360° rotation of the propeller


efficiency |noun|  1. the fact of being able to act or produce something with a minimum of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort / Efficiency is a key component of a successful business. /  2. the ratio of the energy delivered by a machine to the energy supplied for its operation / mechanical efficiency, propeller efficiency  / - thermal efficiency > the efficiency of conversion of fuel energy to kinetic energy


efficient |adjective| able to act or produce something with a minimum of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort / At some speeds and altitudes the pure jet engine is less efficient than a piston engine. / - efficient combustion > combustion in which fuel energy is used to its maximum capability


effort |noun|  1. the use of physical or mental energy to do something / In order to qualify for a license, it is necessary to put some effort into the training course. Flying a high performance aerobatic light aircraft to its limits requires a lot of physical effort on the part of the pilot. /  2. force applied against inertia / Actuators are capable of exerting low-speed turning effort. /


EFIS |abbreviation| electronic flight instrument system


eggbeater |noun| a rotary-wing aircraft (informal)


EGNOS |noun| a European system that improves the quality of data from existing satellite navigation systems to make the data suitable for use by aircraft. Full form: European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (NOTE: The US equivalent is WAAS.)

EGPWS |abbreviation| Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System

EGT |abbreviation| Exhaust Gas Temperature

EICAS |noun| a cockpit display for monitoring the engines and warning of malfunction. Full form: engine indicating and crew alerting system


eject |verb| to throw out forcefully / On depressurization the oxygen mask is ejected automatically from the service panel. /


ejection |noun| an act of throwing out forcefully


ejection seat, ejector seat |noun| an emergency escape seat in military aircraft which is fired out of the aircraft while the crew-member is still in it


ejector |noun|  1. a device to throw something out forcefully  2. a device using a jet of water, air, or steam to withdraw a fluid or gas from a space / A jet transfer pump or fuel ejector is used to transfer fuel. /


elapse |verb| to pass / The radio altimeter works on the principle that, if the path followed by the radio wave is straight down and up, then the elapsed time between the outgoing and incoming signal is a function of the aircraft’s height. /


elastic |adjective| flexible, easily returning to its original shape after being stretched or expanded /At low values of stress, if the plot of stress and strain is a straight line, this indicates that the material is elastic within this range./


elasticity |noun| the property of returning to an original form or state following deformation / Titanium falls between aluminum and stainless steel in terms of elasticity, density and elevated temperature strength. /


electric |adjective| powered or worked by electricity


electrical |adjective|  1. referring to electricity / an electrical fault /  2. powered or worked by electricity / Activation may be mechanical or electrical. /


electric current |noun| the mass movement of electric charge in a conductor


electricity |noun| an electric current used to provide light, heat, power


electric power |noun| electricity used to drive machines or devices


electro- |prefix| electricity


electrode |noun| a solid electrical conductor through which an electric current enters or leaves an electrolytic cell / A battery has a positive and a negative electrode. /


electrolyte |noun| a chemical compound that becomes conductive when dissolved or molten / The electrolyte in a lead-acid battery consists of sulfuric acid diluted with distilled water. /


electrolytic |adjective| - electrolytic cell > a cell consisting of electrodes in an electrolyte solution


electromagnet |noun| a magnet consisting of a coil of insulated wire wrapped around a soft iron core that is magnetized only when current flows through the wire


electromagnetism |noun| a force exerted by a magnetic field found around any conductor carrying current, the strength of which will depend on the amount of current flow


electromotive force |noun| a source of electrical energy required to produce an electric current, produced by devices such as batteries or generators and measured in volts. Abbreviation: emf


electron |noun| a subatomic particle that has a negative electrical charge / Electrons in the outer orbits of an atom may not be strongly attracted to the nucleus and may be lost. /


electronic |adjective| referring to, based on, operated by, or involving the controlled conduction of electrons especially in a vacuum, gas, or semi-conducting material / Lightning does not often seriously damage aircraft but it may affect sensitive electronic equipment. /


electronic centralized aircraft monitor |noun| a display on two cathode ray tubes giving pilots engine and systems information. Abbreviation: ECAM


electronic flight instrument system |noun| primary flight and navigation information on a cathode ray tube. Abbreviation: EFIS (NOTE: The electronic flight instrument system can show basic flight information and engine performance information, as well as moving maps and checklists.)

electronic racks |plural noun| shelves used to house computers in the avionics bay / main equipment center

element |noun|  1. a substance composed of atoms with an identical number of protons in each nucleus / Elements cannot be reduced to simpler substances by normal chemical methods. /  2. the resistance coil in an electrical device such as a heater  3. a removable component or removable part, such as in an air filter or oil filter


elevate |verb| to move something to a higher place or position from a lower one; to lift / In some light aircraft the magnetic compass is elevated to a position as far away from the interfering effect of other components as possible. /


elevated |adjective| - elevated temperature > increased or raised temperature


elevation |noun| the height at which something is above a point of reference such as the ground or sea level / The highest point in a locality is marked by a dot with the elevation marked alongside. / - aerodrome elevation > distance in feet of the aerodrome above sea level / Elevation is indicated on charts by means of contour lines, spot heights, etc. /


elevator |noun|  1. a movable control surface, usually attached to the horizontal stabilizer of an aircraft, used to produce the nose up/down motion of an aircraft in level flight known as pitch / Elevators should be checked for full and free movement immediately prior to take-off. /  2. US same as lift (NOTE: Some aircraft have an all-moving tailplane called a ‘stabilator’ (a combination of the words stabilizer and elevator.)

eleven o’clock |noun| a direction, not a time (which would be pronounced eleven hundred hours) used to locate objects in space. 12 o’clock means straight ahead, so 11 o’clock means a little to the left.

eliminate |verb| to get rid of or remove / Air dryers are provided to eliminate the possibility of ice forming. To eliminate the need for complex mechanical linkage, the selector is operated electrically. / - to eliminate a danger > to remove a danger


ellipse |noun| an oval-shaped line / Each planet moves in an ellipse and the sun is at one of the foci. /


elliptical |adjective| having an oval shape / the elliptical path of the Earth around the sun /


ELR |abbreviation|  1. environmental lapse rate   2. extra long range (ICAO)


embarkation |noun| the act of going onto an aircraft / Embarkation will start in ten minutes. / (NOTE: Boarding is usually preferred.) - embarkation time > the time at which passengers will be asked to go onto the aircraft


embed |verb| to fix firmly in a surrounding mass / A temperature probe is embedded into the stator of the generator. Water outlets have heater elements embedded in rubber seals in the outlet pipe. /

Embraer 190/195 |noun| a series of narrow-body, twin-engine, medium-range, jet airliners produced by the Brazilian manufacturer Embraer

emergency |noun| a serious situation that happens unexpectedly and demands immediate action / to deal with or to handle an emergency /

emergency code |noun| 4-digit international transponder signals used by the crew to alert ATC in the event of an emergency. 7500 indicates unlawful interference, 7600 lost communication and 7700 a general emergency.

emergency descent |noun| a planned rapid losing of altitude because of a serious situation


emergency equipment |noun| devices for use only in serious situations


emergency exit |noun| a way out only to be used in case of an emergency / How many emergency exits are there in the aircraft? /


emergency frequency |noun| 121.5 MHz, the frequency on which aeronautical emergency radio calls are made


emergency landing |noun| a landing made as a result of an in-flight emergency


emergency procedures |plural noun| a set of actions preplanned and followed in the event of a serious situation


emergency services |plural noun| the fire, ambulance and police services / The alarm will activate the emergency services. /


emf |abbreviation| electromotive force


emission |noun|  1. the process of sending out e.g. matter, energy or signals / One factor on which the operational range of a radio emission depends is the transmitted power. /  2. a substance discharged into the air, as by an internal combustion engine / Exhaust emissions contain pollutants. /


emit |verb| to send out e.g. matter, energy or radiation / An X-ray tube emits radiation. Latent heat is emitted when condensation takes place. / (NOTE: emitting – emitted)


empennage |noun| the tail assembly of an aircraft / The empennage usually includes the fin, rudder, horizontal stabilizer (or tail-plane), and elevator. /


emphasis |noun| force of expression that gives importance to something / It is only in recent years that much emphasis has been placed on determining the causes of metal fatigue. /


emphasize |verb| to give importance to something / On some maps, different elevations are emphasized by coloring. /


employ |verb|  1. to use / There are two methods employed to cool the cylinders down. In some aircraft, particularly those employing nickel-cadmium batteries, temperature sensing devices are located within the batteries to provide a warning of high battery temperatures. /  2. to give somebody regular paid work


empty weight |noun| weight of a plane without fuel, people or freight


enable |verb| to make something possible or easier / Isolation valves are fitted to enable servicing and maintenance to be carried out. /


enclose |verb| to surround on all sides / The housing encloses the various mechanical parts. Fuses form a weak link in a circuit and are usually made of a strip of tinned copper enclosed in a glass tube. /


encode |verb| to put into code /Weather information is encoded to allow large amounts of information to be given in a short space of time./


encounter |verb| to meet something unexpected or unwanted / Severe icing can be encountered in wave cloud. /


endurance |noun| the length of time an aircraft can stay in the air without refueling / The flight time to the PNR and back will equal the endurance of the aircraft. /


energy |noun|  1. the ability of a physical system to do work  2. power from electricity, petrol, heat, etc. / The engine converts heat energy into mechanical energy. The generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. /


engage |verb| 1. to switch on and use / The autopilot may be engaged during climb or descent. / Opposite: disengage  2. engaged in working on a particular job or task / Personnel engaged in ground running must ensure that any detachable clothing is securely fastened and they should wear acoustic ear muffs. /

engine |noun| a machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion, different from an electric or hydraulic motor because of its use of a fuel / jet engine, piston engine, internal combustion engine / - engine-driven > referring to equipment and devices which take their power from the engine when it is running - engine running > engine operating or working - the engine is running > the engine is working / The accident investigation demonstrated that the engine was running at full power when the aircraft hit the ground. / (NOTE: In British usage, there is a clear distinction between the terms ‘engine’ and ‘motor’, the term ‘motor’ only being used for electric power units. In American usage, however, ‘motor’ is used for all types of power unit including the internal-combustion engine.)

engine block |noun| a cylinder block with integral crankcase


engine capacity |noun| the swept volume of an engine


engine compartment |noun| a space in the airframe where the engine is located

engine run-up |noun| operating the engine on the ground over its full power range for testing purposes after an engine change or repair

engine run-up area / pad |noun| remote location where aircraft engines can be tested

engine stall margin |noun| the difference between the gas turbine operating line and the stall line

engineer |noun| a person who is qualified to design, build and repair machines - aircraft engineer > an engineer who specializes in the maintenance and repair of aircraft


engineering |noun| the use of scientific and mathematical principles for practical reasons such as the design, manufacture, and operation of machines and systems, etc. - aircraft engineering > the branch of aviation concerned with the maintenance and repair of aircraft / Reinforced plastics or composites are being used in aircraft engineering instead of metals because they are much lighter. /


engine failure |noun| a situation in which an engine stops during running


engine indicating and crew alerting system |noun| full form of EICAS


engine instruments |plural noun| instruments which give the pilot information about engine temperature, speed, etc.


engine intake |noun| the front part of the engine where air enters the engine


engine malfunction |noun| a situation in which the engine does not work as it should


engine oil |noun| oil used especially to lubricate engines


engine performance |noun| a description of how well the engine works or detailed statistical information about the capabilities of the engine


enhance |verb| to make greater or better or clearer / Chances of survival are enhanced if passengers know where the emergency exits are. / ‘…any automation must be designed to enhance the decision making abilities of the crew, not replace them’

Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System |noun| a system providing crews with forward warning of the risk of collision with terrain in sufficient time for them to take avoiding action. EGPWS or TAWS (Terrain Awareness and Warning System) is combined with a Global Positioning System (GPS) for greater accuracy in remote areas.

enhancement |noun| the process of making greater, better or clearer - enhancement of an image on a screen > the improvement of an image on a screen


enlarge |verb| to make bigger or larger - enlarge the hole > make the hole bigger


enplane |verb| to board or allow somebody to board an aircraft


en route |adverb|,|adjective| on or along the way - en route from New York to London > on the way from New York to London - en route alternate > an airfield where it is possible to land if there is an in-flight problem - en route weather conditions > a description of the weather along the path of flight - en route charts > charts providing detailed information for IFR flight  in upper airspace: navigational aids, tracks, navigational fixes, way-points, sectors, standard airways, airport locations, minimum altitudes etc.


ensure |verb| to make certain, to make sure / The generator cut-out ensures that the battery cannot discharge. Before the engine is stopped, it should normally be allowed to run for a short period at idling speed, to ensure gradual cooling. /


enter |verb|  1. to come or go into / Air enters at the front of the cabin and leaves at the rear. /  2. to write down e.g. information / Enter the rectified airspeed in the log. Enter your name in the correct place in the form. /  3. to put data into a computer, especially by using the keyboard to type it in / Enter the data into the computer. /


entire |adjective| whole, having no part excluded or left out - the entire life of a thunderstorm > the complete life of a thunderstorm


entry |noun|  1. the act or instance of going in / the flow of traffic at entry points to the airfield. /  2. the writing in of an item, as in a record or log / An entry should be made in the technical log. /


entry point |noun| a position on the ground above which an aircraft entering a control zone crosses the boundary

enunciation |noun| clear pronunciation of sounds to maximize understanding: a simple way to improve enunciation is to exaggerate normal mouth movements

envelop |verb| to surround and cover / The atmosphere envelops the earth. /


envelope |noun|  1. the set of limitations within which a technological system, especially an aircraft, can perform safely and effectively / The boundaries of flight envelopes vary between aircraft categories and performance groups but in each case, there is a speed which must not be exceeded which is called the Vne (never-exceed speed). /  2. a cover / The atmosphere is the gaseous envelope surrounding the earth. /


environment |noun|  1. nearby conditions or circumstances / A body of air warmer than its environment will rise. / - a non-computer environment > a computer-free working situation  2. the natural world in which people, animals and plants live / People are interested in issues to do with the environment, such as global warming. /


environmental |adjective| referring to the immediate surroundings


environmental control system |noun| an air-conditioning system for the aircraft. Abbreviation: ECS


environmental lapse rate |noun| the rate at which the temperature of the air falls as one rises above the earth / Although there is an average ELR of 1.98°C per 1,000 feet, in practice the ELR varies considerably with space and time. / Abbreviation: ELR


epoxy-based primer |noun| a primer containing epoxy resin, a substance which, with the addition of hardeners, becomes very strong and hard after a time at normal temperatures

EPR (Engine Pressure Ratio) indication |noun| an indication of  the ratio between engine turbine discharge pressure and compressor inlet pressure, which is used on certain engines

equal |adjective| having the same quantity, measure, or value as another / For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. / - |verb| to be the same in value as /Two plus two equals four (2 + 2 = 4)./


equalize |verb| to become the same in quantity, measure or value / Fluid pressure and gas pressure equalize at normal system pressure. /


equate |verb| to be the same as / In an electrical circuit, an increase in length equates to an increase in resistance. /


equation |noun| a statement, usually in symbols, that two quantities or mathematical expressions are equal / X2 + Y2 = Z2. The equation Vg = P can be used to find the geostrophic wind. /


equator |noun| the imaginary great circle around the Earth’s surface, equidistant from the poles and perpendicular to the Earth’s axis of rotation which divides the Earth into the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere / Every point on the equator is equidistant from the poles. /


equatorial |adjective| referring to the equator or to conditions that exist at the Earth’s equator


equilibrium |noun| a state of physical balance / When an aircraft is in straight and level flight at a constant speed, the forces of lift, thrust, weight and drag are in equilibrium. /


equipment |noun| devices, systems, machines, etc., that are needed for a particular purpose (NOTE: Equipment has no plural form; for one item say: a piece of equipment.) - electrical equipment > devices, components, systems, etc., which use electricity


equivalent |adjective| having the same purpose or value as something else / The function of a logic gate is equivalent to that of a switch. A metal part could be as much as 25 times heavier than an equivalent plastic part. /


equivalent shaft horsepower |noun| the unit used for stating the total power of a turboprop engine, consisting of the shaft horsepower  of the engine plus the thrust from the engine. Abbreviation: ESHP


error |noun|  1. a mistake or incorrect calculation  2. the known inaccuracy of an instrument or system which has to be corrected by calculating the true value


escape |noun| the act of getting away from or out of a place after being held - escape of fuel or oil > unwanted loss of fuel or oil - escape from danger > getting to a safe place - |verb| to get away from or out of after being held / If there is a hole in the fuselage of a pressurized aircraft, air escapes from the cabin to the atmosphere. /


escape hatch |noun| a small doorway only used in emergencies


escape route |noun| the passengers’ way out of an aircraft after an emergency landing


escape slide |noun| a device which allows passengers to exit the aircraft safely in an emergency, when no steps are available


ESHP |abbreviation| equivalent shaft horsepower


essential |adjective| absolutely necessary / Teamwork within the crew is essential. A knowledge of the tropopause is essential. / - non-essential > not necessary


EST |abbreviation|  1. Eastern Standard Time  2. estimate (ICAO)  3. estimated (ICAO)


establish |verb|  1. to be confirmed as stable in a particular flight condition, such as a flight level or glide-slope, etc. / Once established on the downwind leg, the pilot should perform the checks. /  2. to work out or to calculate - establish your position > find out where you are  3. to position / Low-power NDBs (Non-Directional Radio Beacons) are often established at the outer or middle marker sites. /  4. - to establish communication > to make contact with - to establish control > to get control - established in cruise > in level flight at its maximum or cruise altitude, which is typically between 35,000 and 41,000 feet


estimate |verb|  1. to calculate approximately the cost, value or size of something / I estimate that it will take about two hours for us to reach our destination. Cloud heights may be measured or estimated. /  2. to form a judgement about - to estimate the chances of something > to weigh the possibilities and form an opinion


estimated take-off time |noun| the time when an aircraft is expected to take off. Abbreviation: ETOT


estimated time of arrival |noun| the time when an aircraft is expected to arrive. Abbreviation: ETA


estimated time of departure |noun| the time when an aircraft is expected to take off. Abbreviation: ETD


estimation |noun|  1. an approximate calculation / Estimation of visibility is achieved by noting the distances at which lights of known candle power can be observed and relating these distances to visibility-by-day values. /  2. an opinion - in my estimation > in my opinion


ETA |abbreviation| estimated time of arrival


ETD |abbreviation| estimated time of departure

ETOPS |abbreviation| Extended Twin Operations

ETOT |abbreviation| estimated take-off time


Eurocontrol |noun| the European organization for the safety of air navigation (NOTE: Eurocontrol operates the ATC center at Maastricht in the Netherlands and the Central Flow Management Unit in Brussels.)


European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service |noun| full form of EGNOS


evacuate |verb|  1. to remove all the people from somewhere in the event of an emergency / to evacuate all passengers from the airport /  2. to empty somewhere of all people in it because of an emergency / to evacuate the aircraft /  3. to create a vacuum - evacuate a glass jar > remove all the air from a glass jar


evacuation |noun|  1. the act of removing all people from somewhere in the event of an emergency / The evacuation of the passengers from the airport was not ordered. /  2. an act of emptying somewhere of all people in it because of an emergency / The evacuation of the aircraft did not take long. / - evacuation command > an evacuation order from the captain - ditching evacuation > an evacuation after the aircraft has force-landed on water


evaluate |verb| to examine and judge carefully / Deposits of ice are detected and continuously evaluated to operate a warning system. /


evaluation |noun| the examination and judgement of something / The ice detector system provides continuous evaluation of conditions conducive to the formation of ice. /


evaporate |verb| to convert or change a liquid into a vapor / In the heat of the day, water evaporates from the surface of the earth. / Opposite: condense


evaporation |noun| the changing of a liquid into vapor, vaporization / Carburetor icing can be caused by the expansion of gases in the carburetor and the evaporation of liquid fuel. /


even |adjective|  1. flat or smooth, with no bumps or dents  2. the same in all parts of an area or over a whole surface / an even distribution of passengers, an even application of paint /  3. - even numbers > exactly divisible by 2, e.g. 4, 6, 20 - |adverb|  1. yet more / It will be even higher than the new building. / - even faster > not just as fast as, but more  2. - even if > whether or not / Stop at the holding point even if there are no other aircraft on the approach. / - even though > in spite of the fact that / He gained his private pilot’s license even though he was 73 years old. /


event |noun| a happening / The Paris air show is a major event. / - in the event of > if something should happen / Passengers should fasten their seat belts in the event of turbulence. / - in the event of main pump failure > if there should be a failure of the main pump - in the event of fire > if there should be a fire


eventual |adjective| happening at an unspecified time in the future / Water in the fuel may lead to eventual engine stoppage. /


eventually |adverb| at an unspecified time in the future / Vapor cools and eventually condenses. /


evidence |noun| an outward sign - external evidence of cracks > something which can be seen on the surface which suggests that there is a deeper structural problem / Deformed wing panels may be evidence of an over-stressed airframe. /


evident |adjective| obvious, easily seen or understood / It is evident from the information available that language problems played a part in the cause of the accident. / - self-evident > clear in itself, without further explanation


exact |adjective| completely accurate or correct / The exact fuel flow and pressure is adjusted. / - the calculation is not exact > the calculation is not 100% correct


exactly |adverb|  1. accurately, correctly / Measure the quantity exactly. /  2. absolutely, completely / A fuel injection system performs exactly the same function as a carburetor. /


examination |noun|  1. a set of questions or exercises testing knowledge or skill / The examination includes a flight plan. /  2. - medical examination > medical check-up  3. a careful observation or inspection


examine |verb|  1. to find out how much knowledge or skill somebody possesses by means of questions or exercises / Students will be examined in four subjects. /  2. to test or check the condition or health of somebody  3. to study or analyze something


exceed |verb| to be greater than / Vertical velocity of updrafts can exceed 50 kt. /


exception |noun| something or somebody not included - an exception to the rule > an example which does not conform to a general rule - with the exception of > not including - with the exception of Smith, all the students passed their exams > Smith did not pass, but the other students did


exceptional |adjective|  1. being an exception, uncommon - in exceptional circumstances > in unusual circumstances  2. well above average, extraordinary - an exceptional pilot > a very good pilot


excess |noun| an amount or quantity beyond what is normal or sufficient - excess power > the difference between horsepower available and horsepower required - in excess of > more than - a height in excess of 50,000 feet > a height greater than 50,000 feet


excess baggage |noun| an amount, usually expressed as weight, of baggage which exceeds the airline’s limit per passenger


excessive |adjective| more than the normal, usual, reasonable, or proper limit / Excessive use of power when taxiing will require excessive use of brakes. /


exchange |verb| to give in return for something received / Meteorological stations exchange information with other meteorological stations. /


excitation |noun| the act of supplying a small current to the windings of larger electrical motors, etc. / Pilot excitation consists of a pilot exciter and a main exciter, to provide the direct current for the motor of the alternating current generator. /


exciter |noun| the source of a small current to supply electrical current to the windings of larger electrical motors, etc., e.g. a battery / Pilot excitation consists of a pilot exciter and a main exciter, to provide the direct current for the motor of the alternating current generator. /


exclude |verb| to keep out, to prevent from entering / Joints and interfaces should exclude moisture and improve fatigue life. /


exercise |noun| an activity that requires physical or mental effort or practice / Swimming is good physical exercise for people such as pilots who spend a lot of time sitting down. / - |verb| to use or to put into play or operation / Student pilots must exercise special care when landing in a strong crosswind. /


exert |verb| - to exert a force > to put a force on something / Pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the atmosphere on a given surface area. / - to exert an influence > to have an influence - to exert pressure > to put pressure onto something


exhaust |noun|  1. the escape or release of vaporous waste material from an engine  2. a pipe through which waste gases pass out of the engine / The exhaust valve opens to allow for the exit of exhaust gases. / - |verb| to consume or use up all of something / Supplies of fuel are exhausted. / (NOTE: To run out is less formal.)


exhaust gas |noun| gas which is the product of the combustion process and which is passed out through the exhaust system / Exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide. /

Exhaust Gas Temperature |noun| one of the principal engine parameters monitored by the crew with N1 and N2 or EPR

exhaust system |noun| a system of pipes, silencers, etc., which carry exhaust gases from the engine to a point where they are released into the atmosphere


exhaust valve |noun| a valve in a piston engine which allows exhaust gases to leave the cylinder


exhibit |verb| to have or to display / Composites, due to their construction, exhibit good fatigue behavior. Alto-cumulus are (usually) white layers or patches of cloud frequently exhibiting a waved appearance. /


exist |verb| to be present under particular circumstances or in a specified place / Water can exist in the atmosphere in three forms. A fire risk may exist following failure or leakage of any component. /


existence |noun| the fact or state of being / Warning systems are provided to give an indication of a possible failure or the existence of a dangerous condition. /


exit |noun|  1. the act of going out of a place / The exhaust valve opens to allow for the exit of exhaust gases. / - exit velocity > the velocity of exhaust gases from a jet engine  2. a way out


exit nozzle |noun| a pipe or opening through which exhaust gases leave a jet engine


exit point |noun| a position on the ground above which an aircraft leaving a control zone crosses the boundary


expand |verb| to increase in size, volume or quantity, to enlarge / Air expands when heated and contracts when cooled. /


expansion |noun| an increase in size, volume or quantity / There is an expansion of the gas when it is heated. /


expansion chamber |noun| a container which allows for expansion of a fluid caused by increase in temperature, etc.


expect |verb| to hope or to assume that something is going to happen / We expect flight AC 309 within ten minutes. / - as might be expected > as people think would happen

expectation bias |noun| the belief that you know in advance what you will see or hear, which affects what you actually think you see or hear.  Expectation bias in ATC means that there is a strong belief or mindset that a particular outcome will happen, or there is a particular cause for a situation, even when there is evidence to the contrary. Expectation bias is reinforced by previous experience of situations which have features in common with the current situation.

expected |adjective| being thought or hoped to be taking place / the expected number of passengers /


expected approach time |noun| the time at which air traffic control expects an arriving aircraft to complete its approach for landing, following a delay. Abbreviation: EAT


expedite |verb| to speed up the progress of - to expedite the evacuation > to speed up the evacuation - to expedite the disembarkation > to get the passengers off the aircraft quickly


expel |verb| to force out, to drive out / Exhaust gases are expelled from the cylinder by the upward movement of the piston. The piston draws fluid into the cylinders on the outward stroke and expels fluid into the system on the inward stroke. /


experience |noun|  1. the building up of knowledge or skill over a period of time by an active participation in events or activities  2. an event or incident  / The first solo is an experience most pilots never forget. / - |verb| to undergo, participate in or find oneself in a particular situation / It is not unusual to experience traffic delays on the ground prior to departure. Turbulence can be experienced when flying through a trough. /


experiment |noun| a scientific test, carried out under controlled conditions, that is made to demonstrate or discover something / Experiments have shown that left-handed people often have better hand/eye coordination than right handed people. / - to conduct an experiment > to perform an experiment - |verb| - to experiment (with) > to carry out a scientific test under controlled conditions in order to demonstrate or discover something


experimental |adjective| referring to something still at an early stage of development, not tried and tested / the experimental and testing stages of a new type of aircraft. / - an experimental aircraft > an aircraft designed to be used for experimental purposes / The experimental aircraft were used to investigate high-speed flight. /


explanatory |adjective| referring to something which explains - explanatory paragraph > a paragraph of text which explains something - self-explanatory > something which does not need any further explanation


explosion |noun|  1. a release of energy in a sudden and often violent way  2. an act of bursting as a result of internal pressure  3. the loud sound made as a result of an explosion / The passengers heard an explosion. /


explosive |adjective| referring to something having the nature of an explosion - an explosive effect > having the effect of an explosion - |noun| a substance, especially a prepared chemical, that explodes or causes explosions, e.g. Semtex


expose |verb| to uncover something or leave something uncovered so that it is not protected from something such as rain or sunlight / When the slope of a hill is exposed to solar radiation, wind currents are set up. / - exposed to the sun > in sunlight without covering - exposed surface > a surface without paint or covering of any sort


exposure |noun|  1. the fact of being exposed, especially to severe weather or other forces of nature / After 24 hours in the sea, she was suffering from the effects of exposure and was taken to hospital. /  2. the fact of being subjected to something / Exposure to radio-active substances may cause cancer. /


express |verb| to put into words, symbols or signs / Bearings may be expressed as true or relative. An angle may be expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds. Pressure altitudes are expressed in hundreds of feet. /


extend |verb| to stretch or spread from one point to another in space or time / Air from the Gulf of Mexico can extend into Canada. Cumulonimbus clouds may extend to over 50,000 ft. / - to extend the duration of something > to prolong the time / The visit was extended to allow time for more discussions. /

extend the RAT |verb| to deploy the Ram Air Turbine, a small electrical generator driven by a propeller, which is lowered into the airstream below the wing to provide essential electrical (and hydraulic) power in the event of multiple engine-driven generator failures

extended threshold |noun| the end of the runway beyond the operational threshold which is usually only used for additional stopping distance in an emergency

Extended Twin Operations |noun| the use of long-haul, twin-engine aircraft over the sea, desert or arctic regions where there is no suitable airport within 60 minutes of flight which can be used in case of a diversion being necessary following the loss of an engine. A more facetious interpretation of the acronym ‘ETOPS’ is ‘Engines Turning Or Passengers Swimming’! Abbreviation: ETOPS

extensive |adjective| large in range or amount - an extensive area > a large area - extensive cloud > a lot of cloud - extensive use is made of > much use is made of


extent |noun| a range or amount of something / The horizontal extent of the cloud averages about 50 km. Clouds of great vertical extent are not uncommon. / - to a certain extent , to some extent partly / The accident was caused, to a certain extent, by the poor weather. / - to a lesser extent > not as much as something previously stated / The cloud types which are most likely to affect flying conditions in terms of icing, precipitation and turbulence are cumulus, cumulonimbus and, to a lesser extent, nimbo-stratus. /


external |adjective| referring to, existing on, or connected with the outside or an outer part / The only external force acting on air is gravity. / Opposite: internal - external appearance > the appearance of something from the outside


external ambient pressure |noun| pressure outside the aircraft


extinguish |verb| to put out / The fire services extinguished the fire. /


extinguisher |noun| a portable mechanical device for spraying and putting out a fire with chemicals / Hand-operated fire extinguishers are provided to combat any outbreaks of fire in the flight crew compartment and passengers’ cabins. /


extract |noun| a part taken from a longer text / The following paragraph is an extract from a flight manual. / - |verb|  1. to obtain from a substance by chemical or mechanical action / A dehumidifier extracts moisture from the atmosphere. /  2. to take out or to obtain information from something / Extract the important information from a text. /


extrapolate |verb| to estimate by using known facts / Information given on a synoptic chart can be extrapolated, by the use of some simple guidelines. /


extreme |adjective|  1. most distant in any direction, the outermost or farthest / the most extreme point on the map /  2. to the greatest or highest degree, very great - extreme care must be taken > the greatest care must be taken - extreme difficulty > great difficulty - |noun| either of the two things, values, situations, etc., situated at opposite ends of a range / The region experiences extremes of temperature. /


eye |noun| an organ in the head which lets you see.

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